The heat response regulators HSFA1s promote <i>Arabidopsis</i> thermomorphogenesis via stabilizing PIF4 during the day


During summer, plants often experience increased light inputs and high temperatures, two major environmental factors with contrasting effects on thermomorphological traits. The integration of light and temperature signaling to control thermomorphogenesis in plants is critical for their acclimation in such conditions, but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unclear. We found that heat shock transcription factor 1d (HSFA1d) and its homologs are necessary for plant thermomorphogenesis during the day. In response to warm daytime temperature, HSFA1s markedly accumulate and move into the nucleus where they interact with phytochrome-interacting factor 4 (PIF4) and stabilize PIF4 by interfering with phytochrome B–PIF4 interaction. Moreover, we found that the HSFA1d nuclear localization under warm daytime temperature is mediated by constitutive photomorphogenic 1–repressed GSK3-like kinase BIN2. These results support a regulatory mechanism for thermomorphogenesis in the daytime mediated by the HSFA1s-PIF4 module and uncover HSFA1s as critical regulators integrating light and temperature signaling for a better acclimation of plants to the summer high temperature. HSFA1-PIF4 module mediates the daytime thermomorphogenesis.

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